Varicose veins is a scourge of our time. Clinical research surgical faculty rnsmu. N. Pirogov, on the planet about half of the population suffers from some form of pathological disorders of circulatory and vascular system. Women, according to their physiological characteristics, are more prone to disease. Their amount is up to 40% of the total number of patients. While men only 20% of cases affected by this pathology of vessels.
The symptoms and treatment of varicose veins in the legs are closely interrelated and provide preventive inspection of vessels for selection of proper therapy.
The clinical picture
Dysfunctioning of venous blood flow due to damage to the valves of the perforating (connecting) veins, congestion and the strain. When the work is deep (internal) broken arteries, blood circulation becomes chaotic, causing it to contact the surface vessels and the formation of characteristic knots. Not designed for the transportation of such a powerful blood flow, veins are stretched, forming thundering balls of blood vessels and the notorious blue "snake" (tortuous veins appearing on the surface of the skin). Such defects are clearly visible with the naked eye or palpation of the lesion.
Varicose veins refers to a progressive disease, which without timely treatment, it is fraught with health complications and disabilities. Wrong blood reflux has different manifestations, depending on the severity of patients ' vessels, and expressed in terms of increased intravenous pressure and appearance in connection with excessive fatigue of the legs, swelling, heaviness in the feet and ankles, the regular seizures. In advanced cases of varicose veins in places of vascular injury, the formation of wounds, ulcers and blood clots.
Varicose veins can be primary and secondary. In addition to lower limbs, dislocation of the disease is the stomach, esophagus, organs of small pelvis, testicles, seed funicles, penis, colon. In violation of blood flow deep vein pathology takes quite seriously, leading to weakening of the vessel wall, expanding the inner cavity of the arteries and the transfer of disease chronic (venous insufficiency). Therefore, the earlier diagnosed with varicose veins, the better the chances for recovery and less risk of pathological complications.
Causes of venous extensions serve different factors. Conditionally they can be divided into primary and secondary. The main sources of varicose veins are:
- Regular heavy physical exertion;
- Long stay a static position — sitting or standing;
- Adverse environmental conditions — for example, constant high temperature;
- Fluctuations of body weight or chronic obesity;
- Hormonal imbalance — during pregnancy or menopause;
- Diseases of the endocrine system;
- Hereditary-genetic disposition, manifesting the characteristics of the structure of vessels, namely, congenital anatomical inferiority of venous valves weakness of the connective tissue of the arterial walls;
In addition, indirectly cause dysfunction of the venous vascular system can:
- Systematically repeated stress affects the state of the arteries and nerve endings, causing them inside of the pressure increase and loss of elasticity;
- Professional sport with a primary focus on lower limb — lifting weights, running long distances, etc.;
- Wearing uncomfortable clothes and shoes — very tight in the pelvic area and legs things, narrow and high heeled shoes;
- Transferred earlier injury to the lower extremities (fractures);
- Old age fades away as a result of which the functionality of epithelial cells, contributing to the weakening of the vein walls, valves and increase the internal volume of the arteries.
A history of the development of varicose veins, as a rule, stimulates not one, but complex factors.
The symptoms of the disease
Varicose veins can have a variety of manifestations, which depend on the complexity of the pathology and physiological characteristics of the patient. In accordance with the stages of varicose veins emphasize the following symptoms vessels:
- Venous patterns or "stars" (telangiectasia) on the skin;
- Swelling of the limbs, especially at the end of the day;
- Pain in the legs or in the course of their veins at palpation;
- Recurrent seizures;
- Fatigue, especially when Hiking;
- The visual manifestation of veins on the surface of the skin;
- A feeling of heaviness in the legs;
- A burning sensation in the affected areas of the veins;
- Muscle itching;
- The pain and aches;
- Education writhing veins in legs and feet;
- Dermatological skin changes — dryness, pigmentation, darkening;
- The development of dermatitis, eczema and trophic disorders in the form of non-healing wounds and ulcerations;
- Thickening of skin in areas of the progression of varicose veins;
- The formation of hematomas.
Rarely, but sometimes, rupture of venous nodes and the occurrence of subcutaneous bleeding. In this case, the situation requires urgent medical assistance and surgery.
Symptomatic can have with adolescence. Developing quickly, after a time, the disease makes itself known a lot of unpleasant health effects. If one of the above signs there is at least one, you should immediately be examined. Treats diseased veins doctor-phlebologist, or surgeon.
Based on the decision of the international scientific community a pathological dilatation of lower extremities is customary to organize a special classifier. Based on this typologizations, varicose veins has 6 clinical stages:
- Zero. There is little subjective complaints of the patient on some of the symptoms of varicose veins, but visual inspection and medical examination clear signs of the disease are still lacking.
- I degree. On the surface of the skin appear small spider veins, rare swelling, heaviness, burning, feeling of "buzzing" in my legs.
- II. Considered the starting point of true varicose veins. Is characterized by an outer clear manifestation of enlarged blood vessels, formation of venous nodes exasperetur after a long stay in a static state or walk n high heels. Starting from this stage, there is a possibility of thrombosis.
- III degree. The symptoms of the second group joins regular swelling, the most prominent by the end of the day and nagging, aching pain in the calf.
- IV degree. Observed trophic changes of the skin. Due to excessive accumulation in epidermis pigment, the skin begins to change its color from dark brown to black. It is also possible the development of a small local inflammation in the form of erytherma or wet wounds, leading eventually to atrophy of the dermis and ulcers.
- V degree. Has the same period as the fifth stage, but viveret. trophic ulceration.
- VI degree. Is characterized by severe progression with education sanitatem wounds and ulcers.
Varicose veins is a serious illness. Without timely treatment, and ongoing prevention it progresses rapidly and leads to irreversible consequences and severe consequences, including death. Just 10 years from diagnosis of varicose veins to pathology with stage I developed in the VI-th.
Diagnosis of the disease
For an accurate diagnosis of the varicose veins and determine its severity using special research methods. The standard scheme of the survey when accessing phlebologist consists of the following procedures:
- Collection of anamnesis of illness, which establish possible risk factors and causes;
- Visual inspection of the patient by changing the last position, and palpation of the affected areas of the veins;
- A laboratory study of the blood;
- Ultrasound color duplex sonography of lower extremity arteries, allowing to properly implement a medical report to measure the speed and direction of blood flow, to map its motion to the characteristics and a clear image of the blood vessels;
- X-rays of blood vessels (venography) with the use of a contrast agent to determine the appearance and shape of veins, the functionality of the valves and direction of blood flow.
Timely and well-chosen method of research allows to determine the position of the superficial and deep veins and form in accordance with the performance of the exact scheme of the therapeutic course.
Pathology in women
The beautiful half of the population suffers from varicose veins more often than men. Favourable factors are:
- Wearing high heel shoes matched or not in accordance with the size and fullness of their feet;
- Trahunt away or excessively tight clothing that interferes with normal blood circulation;
- Work that requires finding the whole day on your feet — the seller, the administrator at the reception, hairdresser, teacher, cook, etc.;
- Hormonal changes due to pregnancy, childbirth and age-related body changes (menopause);
- Experiments with weight — frequent fluctuations in body weight, extreme diets aimed at rapid weight loss, uncontrolled recruitment of extra pounds.
Considering the natural tendency to varicose veins, symptoms such as swelling of legs, excessive leg fatigue, itching and burning sensation, a manifestation of small blood vessels and venous pattern should seriously alert the woman and be cause for immediate doctor's visit.
In the initial stages varicose veins reversible and responsible approach to treatment is completely eliminated. In other cases, to deal with dilated veins use conservative therapy with the use of drugs, intravenous corrective means and special compression underwear. Each of this type of treatment has its own indications for and specifics of exposure to the diseased organ.
- Drug therapy. Involves oral use during a certain period of phlebotropic drugs is phlebotonics, anticoagulants, and antioxidants — helps to strengthen blood vessels and reduce their fragility, the best thinning of the blood and normalize blood flow, cleanses the body of accumulated toxic substances. For local treatment are used tonic, analgesic, soothing and relieving swelling gels and ointments. Also in the therapeutic complex is administered b vitamins, A, K, etc. the Decision about the duration of treatment is based on results of diagnostics and the nature of the dynamics of the disease.
- Sclerotherapy arteries. The method involves the use of special medicines acting on the type of bonding the varicose veins from the inside. Stabiliziruemost resulting in reflux and is performed on healthy vessels. The procedure is invasive, intravenous solution. Assigned by a state of vessels and small amounts of vein nodes.
- The ozone therapy. Is a part of cosmetic medicine and is exposed to the inner space of the vessel cold ozone with the purpose of bonding places of the defect. Also, the method is actively used for removing unaesthetic vascular veins from the skin surface. Effective at the initial stage of the disease. To achieve the desired result with just a few treatments.
- Compression therapy. Consists of wearing a special medical linen, creating in different parts of the foot pressure of various intensity, which in turn helps to reduce the load on the veins and restoration of circulation. The continuous use of corrective underwear protects the blood vessels from stretching and development of thrombosis. The purpose of the compression garment is preventive (minimum compressive force), therapeutic (worn only during exacerbations of Venosa) and hospitalis (used in the post surgery in the hospital). Available in the form of tights, stockings, golf and elastic bandage. The choice of compression underwear is only on the advice of a doctor.
To reduce the risk of development of venous pathology, it is enough to follow simple but effective tips:
- Try to keep active way of life, even with static work — to move periodically to change their position, take small breaks for exercise or recreation;
- Not to throw the legs when sitting;
- Don't wear much expresso things;
- To abandon shoes on high heels or wear it on the occasion;
- Treatment of chronic circulatory disorders, especially hemorrhoids;
- As sports Hobbies to select Cycling and swimming;
- During the holidays to place legs above heart level;
- To review the power supply system and to include in the diet healthy foods;
- To control your weight and try to keep it at a constant value;
- Give up bad habits — Smoking, alcohol, abuse of fatty foods, etc.;
- To take a contrast shower;
- To use during the day plenty of fluids — 1.5 to 2 litres;
- Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.
Apply these simple recommendations will help not only slow down the already developing varicose veins and relieve unpleasant discomfort in the lower limbs, but will also prevent its occurrence in the future.