Varicose veins of the lower extremities — symptoms and treatments

About half of the adult population knows about varicose veins of the lower extremities firsthand. Varicose veins often suffer the fair sex, due to hormonal changes and a love for uncomfortable, too tight clothes and shoes. The first signs of varicose veins usually remain unnoticed, but over time there are not only cosmetic problems but also serious complications that can greatly affect their way of life.

varicose veins of the lower extremities

Causes of disease

The blood circulating through the body throughout our life, but that it rose from the lower extremities to the heart, veins have valves that prevent backflow. Over time, they can lose tone, causing blood vessels become more fragile and stretched, more often affects the veins located in the legs and feet, but there are also lesions in the stomach and pelvic organs.

The main causes of the appearance of varicose veins of the lower extremities:

  • Lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle;
  • Prolonged exposure to standing or sitting, often sitting in the pose of the legs;
  • Heavy physical exertion, especially for professional athletes;
  • Hereditary factors, abnormal vascular tissue;
  • Hormonal changes in the body: pregnancy, menopause, hormone therapy;
  • Improper diet: the abuse of fatty and harmful foods, pastries and fast food;
  • Overweight;
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption;
  • Wearing tight fitting clothes and uncomfortable shoes with high heels.

Signs of varicose veins

The first symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities often go unnoticed. But at this stage of the varicose veins is recommended to take measures to prevent the occurrence of complications. In later stages it is easy to notice the photo of varicose veins of the lower extremities.

Consult your doctor phlebologist or vascular surgeon, if you have the following symptoms:

  • Heaviness in lower extremities;
  • Swelling;
  • The feeling of tired legs;
  • Burning and pain in the lower extremities;
  • Leg cramps at night;
  • Protruding spider veins, varicose manifestation of the capillary mesh;
  • The discoloration of the skin on the limbs, pigmentation.


Aggravation of varicose veins of the lower extremities is most often in the evening, in the heat and after exercise. Next, begin to appear dilated veins on the skin, in advanced stage appears weeping sores, growing scar tissue of the subcutaneous fat.

stages of developing varicose veins

Stage of development of varicose veins

There are several stages in the development of varicose veins, each of which has certain characteristics:

  1. The initial stage (compensation) varicose is characterized by the appearance only cosmetic defects on the skin, spider veins, any discomfort they bring;
  2. In the second stage of varicose veins occur easy pain, mainly at night, little swollen in the evening and veins become more visible;
  3. In the third stage, called subcompensation, the symptoms are evident, there is a heaviness in the legs, swelling, fatigue and burning in the muscles, night cramps in your calves are becoming more painful, changing the color of the skin pigmentation;
  4. Decompensation – the fourth stage of the development of varicose veins can not go unnoticed: dramatically increases the size of veins, swollen legs constantly in the feet and ankles, feet often ache, cramps and itching. The formation of trophic ulcers and thrombophlebitis.

Possible complications

Many patients do not pay attention to varicose, considering that it is only a cosmetic defect that will not bring any serious consequences. But this is a misconception, varicose veins are dangerous and can dramatically ruin the life of the patient.

If untreated can develop serious diseases such as thrombophlebitis (inflammation of vein walls), thrombosis (blood clots), may cause bleeding from varices. Because of this, the skin color may become bluish or reddish. If that appears a clot breaks off,it can reach the lungs, where the full or partial blockage of the vessel it will cause the development of severe disease – pulmonary embolism, which often ends in death.

Wounds on the skin heal longer, breaks down the process of regeneration of the epidermis varicose veins, resulting in venous ulcers. Often to inflammation join varicose dermatitis and eczema, may get a secondary infection, which can cause blood poisoning, sepsis, and can lead to amputation of the limb.

treatment of varicose veins

Treatment of varicose veins

Just like any disease, varicose easiest to resolve at an early stage. For getting rid of varicose veins using conservative treatment, including drug therapy, adherence to wearing compression hosiery and traditional recipes. When running varicose baths of lower extremities surgery is recommended, there are several ways of carrying out the operation, including minus traumatica treatments.

Conservative ways

Regardless of the stage of the disease are encouraged to review food, add to the diet of more fresh fruits and vegetables, reduce the consumption of junk food. You should also light exercises that will strengthen the muscles of the lower extremities.

Excellent results shows the treatment of varicose, supplemented by massage and contrast shower. They improve blood circulation and stimulate the venous valves.

Pharmacy tools

At an early stage of varicose veins of the lower extremities is used only compression hosiery with a slight degree of compression. With the development of the disease used linen with a greater degree of pressure, it picks up the doctor, and he also prescribes medication.

The main types of drugs, providing treatment of varicose veins:

  • Venotonic remedies – improve the condition of blood vessels, stimulate blood circulation;
  • The blood thinners that prevent formation of blood clots. They are released in the form of pills or injections;
  • Medicines, anti-inflammatory, used to reduce pain and swelling.

Popular recipes

Traditional methods work best when the initial varicose or combined therapy. It is recommended to use as tools for internal use and for topical application.

  • Mix equal proportions of powdered classic soap, lard, onions and millet. The resulting mixture was applied to the entire lower limb at night, and then wrap a cloth or tape to create scelerisque effectum;
  • Pour 10 chestnuts or 50 g of the shell 500 ml vodka and place the liquid in a glass bowl. Let stand in a tightly stoppered bottle in a dark place, periodically shake the bottle. After 21 days, strain the infusion. You need to take it before meals to 30 drops, diluted in 2 tbsp water. This will help to strengthen blood vessels and stimulate blood circulation.


One of the alternative methods of eliminating varicose is hirudotherapy – the use of leeches. This treatment method is only possible thrombophlebitis. But there is a risk of infection and development of venous bleeding, so this method is frowned upon by most doctors.



In advanced cases, the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities can be only surgical. Bulging blood vessels do not return to its original place in conservative ways, therefore, it is necessary to conduct the operation. Modern methods almost do not bring any negative consequences for the organism, have the minimum period of rehabilitation.

Indications for surgical treatment:

  • A significant increase in the veins under the skin;
  • Numerous sores;
  • The risk of thromboembolism;
  • Thrombophlebitis;
  • Swelling, leg fatigue and sharp pain.

Contraindications for surgery include pregnancy, infectious diseases, coronary artery disease, pyoderma and eczema.

Laser photocoagulation

Kind of operation, in which there is no need to use a scalpel: in the affected vein injected laser beam which seals the internal wall of the vessel. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and lasts no more than 2 hours. It is recommended to use capillaries with a size up to 1 inch, but may be held and with a larger diameter. No recovery period, immediately after the treatment the patient can return to normal life.

Laser therapy is prescribed to patients with cardiovascular diseases, urogenital diseases, high blood pressure and in cases where surgery is contraindicated.


Laser photocoagulation helps to not only get rid of varicose veins of the lower extremities, but also from trophic ulcers.

Radiofrequency ablation

Under the influence of microwave radio frequency closes the lumen in the patient's vein without incisions and injury to the skin. Therefore, the method of radiofrequency ablation is minimally invasive, requires no recovery period and is performed under local anesthesia. This procedure leaves no scars and signs of tampering to ensure that the ability to work.

The course lasts just 7 days and the effect lasts no more than 30 minutes one vein.



This procedure can be performed at any stage of the disease when the size of the vessel does not exceed 1 cm in diameter. The method consists in the fact that the vein injected a small amount of sclerosant is a special substance which bonds the venous lumen, after which the capillary is no longer involved in the process of blood flow.

The rehabilitation period is missing after the manipulation can be directly walk. Within one month after completion of sclerotherapy, it is recommended to wear shapewear.


Miniphlebectomy is endoscopic surgery, where an incision is made in the skin a few millimeters in size, and with the help of special hooks in the sky, captured the affected area of the vein. The method is applied to vessels of any size, the rehabilitation period lasts for several weeks, in this time, it is recommended to wear compression stockings. On the site of the puncture remains small, barely noticeable scar.

Classic phlebectomy

With the obvious signs of venous insufficiency sometimes carried out a classic operation abscisione veins, but in recent years it is often replaced by other, safer types of intervention.

During the surgery removes the damaged superficial or deep and normalizes blood circulation in the limbs. This method involves the hospitalization and prolonged recovery period – up to six months.

Varicose veins of the lower limbs affects both men and women of any age. This disease spoils the appearance of the legs, brings discomfort, and if untreated can and does lead to serious consequences such as amputation and death. At the initial stage of development of the disease, many patients confuse varicose veins with the usual foot fatigue, making the disease continues to develop, is not yet manifest its distinctive symptoms. There are various methods of treatment include surgery and conservative methods.