Varicose veins in the legs

What are varicose veins knows firsthand about 20% of the population. The diagnosis of varicose veins on the legs implies failure of vascular valve, resulting in impaired venous blood flow. The veins of the extremities dilate and show through the skin. With varicose veins the blood pools in the veins, leading to its stagnation and the expansion vessel. The disease is accompanied by strong swelling, cramps and pain in the legs. The lack of timely treatment can lead to severe complications in the form of thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, as well as to the formation of venous ulcers.

causes and symptoms of varicose veins

Causes and symptoms

Any disease occurs on a specified range of causes and varicose veins in the legs is no exception. It provokes a malfunction in the valves that regulate blood flow. In the early stages the disease can be difficult to diagnose, so patients are at risk, you should pay special attention to the condition of the veins.

The doctors, treating varicose veins, there are the following causes of loss:

  • A sedentary lifestyle, which in turn leads to a deterioration of blood supply and torpor of blood in the veins. Physical inactivity is one of the causes of varicose veins in the legs, which in the initial stages is manifested in the form of spider veins;
  • Great importance is genetic predisposition to the development of disease. If someone from the family suffers from varicose veins, the probability of inheritance of the disease is very high;
  • Increases the risk of disease varicose veins for a long period of being on feet at work. Blood stagnates in one place, resulting in venous nodes;
  • Women especially actively shown varicose veins in pregnancy, it occurs due to hormonal changes and also due to a significant increase in the weight and corresponding load on the leg veins;
  • Bad habits, especially alcohol abuse, have an effect on the leg veins, causing them to lose their elasticity, there is venous insufficiency and failure of the valves of receptacles;
  • Varicose veins in the legs may occur as a result of prolonged stress;
  • The extra weight increases the risk for those who have a genetic predisposition to the disease. Patients in the risk group, you should carefully watch your diet;
  • Varicose veins can be a recurrent disease with heart disease;
  • Age-related changes lead to failure of the vascular valves and the extension of the main veins on the legs;
  • Poor circulation occurs due to wearing too narrow of clothes and uncomfortable shoes with heels;
  • Any venous damage and injury to the legs can cause varicose veins of the lower extremities;
  • Strengthen the symptoms of varicose vein disease and varicose veins lead to deep vein can excessive bath and sauna.


Regardless of the reasons why there is varicose veins of the feet, therapeutic measures should be applied immediately. In the early stage of the disease has a chance to do without surgery.

The symptoms of the varicose veins at an early stage it is difficult to determine, as it is manifested in the form of normal fatigue. Visually diagnosed varicose veins in later stages, when visible becomes greater saphenous vein, swollen in size. Bound by age varicose veins has no documented cases of varicose pathology in adolescents with a genetic predisposition to this disease. The main are the following symptoms of varicose veins on the legs:

the reasons for the development of varicose veins
  • Fatigue, heaviness in the legs, accompanied by pain syndrome;
  • Increase in in size veins under the skin;
  • Night cramps, in the later stages, they can happen in the daytime;
  • A strong burning and even itching of the lower extremities in the area of enlarged veins;
  • Swelling that appear even in healthy veins, with no signs of damage. Swelling as the progression of the disease does not pass even after rest.

Noticing even minimal signs of varicose veins should consult a phlebologist to prevent progression of the disease.

The stage of the disease and possible complications

Treatment of varicose veins on the legs depends on the stage of the disease. Phlebology identifies the following stages of development of varicose veins:

  1. The initial stage of varicose has no special symptoms, except fatigue, swelling, fatigue and heaviness in the legs especially at the end of the day. On average, the duration of this stage is about a year, after which, in the absence of treatment, the disease progresses to the second stage. The treatment of varicose veins of this type carried out with the assistance of local and systemic agents;
  2. The second stage of varicose veins is characterized by symptoms that are identical to the first, however, they manifest themselves stronger. Feet start to hurt more, swellings appear faster and to a greater extent. Cramps can manifest itself up to 5 times in one night. The second stage is characterized by the appearance of spider veins on the legs. They are localized on the lower leg and thighs;


The transition to the second stage to the third is very short, so treatment should begin with the appearance of spider veins.

  1. The third stage of varicose veins is more dangerous than the previous two. Visually varicose veins becoming more noticeable: veins expand and show through the skin, changing its color. The number of diseased vessels in the legs becomes greater, there is severe pain. If untreated, oozing wounds appear on the feet, the treatment of which is painful and long lasting;
  2. The most severe and dangerous stage of this pathology is the fourth, which is characterized by an increase in temperature on the background of ulcers formed and rapidly developing thrombophlebitis. At this stage requires instant surgery.

Varicose veins is not only unsightly appearance and pain. The main danger lies in complications arising on a background of progressive disease.


Complications arise in 30% of cases and require immediate medical intervention.

Complications of varicose veins include:

complications of varicose veins
  • Skin damage in the form of dermatitis and eczema that occurs on the background of circulatory disorders and hypoxia. Symptoms of such complications are manifested in the form of itchy blisters and oozing scabs with a nasty rash;
  • Venous bleeding that occurs on the background of weakening of vessel walls that can rupture even with minimal physical impact;
  • Thrombophlebitis and thrombosis are the most dangerous complications of varicose veins, which require immediate treatment;
  • Tissue necrosis and venous ulcers is typical for the last stages of developing varicose veins. On the skin there are areas of dying tissue. Therapy of these diseases is ineffective.

Complications can endanger the life of the patient, so the treatment of varicose veins is required.

Therapy and prevention

Today doctors know the many ways to address varicose veins. The treatment of the disease depends on its stage. Share two ways of treatment – conservative and operative, the latter shown in the third and fourth stages of the disease. To conservative methods anti varicose therapy include:

  • Drug therapy is a complex combination of systemic and local drugs. Treatment signs doctor, he will recommend to effective medicines;
  • The wearing of compression hosiery in the form of a stocking, Golf or tights with different compression ratio. Compression supports the blood vessels during loading and is essential after surgery on the veins of the legs;
  • Laser photocoagulation – laser treatment to the affected areas by subcutaneous injection led. As a result, an extended Vienna glues and eliminated from the General circulation;
  • Sclerotherapy is the injection directly into a vein a special drug that glues the vein and obstructs the lumen. The blood drive is rebuilt in a healthy vessel;
  • Recipes of traditional medicine used in combination with medication. Such treatment should be pre-agreed with your doctor;
  • Unconventional methods, including hirudotherapy and treatment with water.


Every conservative method of treatment of varicose veins requires a prior diagnosis with the use of ultrasound. At some stages of the disease different treatments are ineffective and lead to loss of time.

The operational method of treatment is shown in advanced stages of venous lesions where conservative methods are ineffective and present a threat to the life of the patient. During phlebectomy occurs the removal of the vein from the General system of blood flow and its removal.

prevention and treatment

Prevention of varicose veins is needed for people who are at risk, as well as patients undergoing surgery to prevent varicose veins. Varicose veins is a chronic disease and therefore needs ongoing prevention, including:

  • Wearing comfortable clothes and shoes, the use of compression hosiery;
  • The rejection of a sedentary lifestyle;
  • Power adjustment.
  • Avoiding harmful habits;
  • Self-massage of the feet;
  • Periodic examination by a phlebologist;
  • The purpose of the medicines, allowing to maintain vein tone.

Varicose veins – a serious disease that instantly goes into the chronic stage. Treatment of varicose veins is long and expensive. But to run the illness is not worth it. Because of varicose veins, or rather from its complications can even die. Timely treatment and adherence to recommendations of doctors in the period of remission – the key to a full life with a diagnosis of varicose veins.