What is varicose veins

Varicose veins (varicose veins) is a disease characterized by a decrease in the density of the vascular walls and the appearance of nodes. Most often, when they talk about varicose veins, they mean varicose veins of the saphenous veins of the legs, but the disease can affect absolutely any part of the body. The most rare is the defeat of the lumbar spinal canal. It affects deep veins.

Almost all people know what VRV looks like. At the first stages of the disease, large cyanotic veins and blood vessels appear under the skin. They indicate that it is time for the patient to go to a phlebologist. Asterisks may also appear. Next, we will talk about what manifestations of varicose veins can occur in humans and how to treat this ailment.

What is varicose veins?

Despite the relative prevalence of the disease, not everyone knows what varicose veins are and how they differ from other venous pathologies. Ulcus cruris venosum - vein pathology, accompanied by the destruction of their valves, tortuosity and expansion. At the initial stage, spider veins appear on the legs and limbs. They are difficult to spot as they are located on the back of the lower leg or knee.

Chronic varicose veins are often diagnosed by doctors with poor heredity. At the same time, the patient has no venous insufficiency of the classical type. In patients, it often manifests itself in periods, the skin of the legs becomes dry, there is severity, but then the symptoms of pathology disappear even without treatment. This does not mean that the patient is cured, but only indicates that the disease is developing secretly.

what is varicose veins and how to treat it

The causes of varicose veins

What causes varicose veins medicine still does not know. It is believed that its development is greatly influenced by the patient's lifestyle. Varicose veins can manifest themselves with strong physical exertion caused by work or active training of the patient. The mechanism of development of varicose veins is to increase the pressure inside the vessels and weakness of the valves. The following factors provoke the development of this condition:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • hormonal fluctuations;
  • constant stay in the same position;
  • consumption of highly toxic drinks and medicines;
  • uncomfortable shoes and clothes.

The psychological causes of varicose veins are the stress that a person experiences. Vessels, like other human organs, are not devoid of nerve endings. Under the influence of negative emotions or specialized drugs, they begin to randomly generate impulses. This leads to a change in the density of the vascular wall.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease manifests itself in different stages in different ways. Symptoms of varicose veins in the first and second stage:

  • severe swelling of the legs at the end of the day;
  • rapid body fatigue;
  • feeling of heaviness in the limbs;
  • feeling of fullness of veins;
  • convulsions.

At the third stage, the signs of varicose veins begin to progress. Pronounced spider veins are added to the edema. Human skin changes. It becomes drier and darker in places. Against the background of insufficient blood circulation, the patient begins to suffer from eczema, dermatitis, trophic ulcers. In the third and fourth stages of the disease, a person experiences severe pain when moving and at rest. Compression garments only slightly alleviate discomfort in the legs and other parts of the body. Such patients are indicated for surgery.

predisposing factors of development and symptoms of varicose veins

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Varicose veins can be diagnosed by a phlebologist by visual examination of the patient. Blood tests play an important role in the diagnostic process. Most often, in addition to the general analysis, the patient will have to pass a specialized test for the content of cholesterol and platelets in the blood. Confirm the diagnosis using a hardware examination of the patient.


This technique is suitable for the diagnosis of mild forms of varicose veins. With the defeat of deep vessels, it is wiser to resort to phlebography. Also, ultrasound helps to identify not only varicose veins, but also various lesions of muscles and cartilage, which can also lead to pain in the limbs and discomfort when moving.


This procedure is a contrast radiological method for examining a patient's veins. A special solution is introduced into the vessels, which will become an obstacle to the X-ray beams. Thanks to the procedure, you can assess the condition of the valves, find out the patency of the veins, and determine the presence of blood clots. In case of severe allergy to contrast, it is not carried out.

Treatment of varicose veins

Not everyone knows which doctor to go to if they find the first symptoms of varicose veins. Some patients go to a cosmetology center to get rid of protruding veins or to a vascular surgeon. All this is a waste of time, since the phlebologist is engaged in the appointment of treatment for varicose veins. He will assess the condition of your veins and skin, and then give a prescription for specific medications or explain what procedure you need to restore your legs to their former beauty.

Drug therapy

It is possible to get rid of varicose veins not only by surgery. In the initial stages, medications are very effective. Patients are prescribed them both in the form of ointments and gels, and in the form of capsules with a large dose of vitamins and venotonic drugs.

Medication should be handled exclusively by a physician. The patient does not have the right to select drugs on his own.

Creams, ointments and gels

Medicines of this group act as adjuvants for varicose veins. They help relieve such unpleasant symptoms of the disease as constant fatigue, swelling, pain. One of the positive aspects of using creams, ointments and gels is an increase in vascular tone.


There are a huge variety of drugs that improve tissue trophism and blood microcirculation. They are selected for each patient individually based on a blood test and the general condition of the body.

Compression jersey

Wearing specialized underwear and clothing is a good way to prevent further development of the disease in the early stages of varicose veins. You can buy knitwear with different degrees of compression and different types. The patient may not worry that his / her illness will be noticed by relatives, relatives or colleagues at work. Most often, patients buy products for the legs: leggings, knee-highs, socks, tights. Some patients are prescribed the wearing of compression shirts and belts when there is a threat of developing varicose veins of the vertebral veins.

Types of compression underwear for varicose veins

Compression knitwear varies in weave, pressure and material. It can be prophylactic, postoperative, prophylactic and sports. They produce compression underwear from microfiber, husky, cotton and nylon with increased elasticity. There are no seams in this jersey, so it can be worn under tight-fitting clothing. The laundry is permeable to moisture and air. According to the degree of compression, jersey can be:

  • 1st class.The pressure applied to the veins and vessels is no more than 23 mm. rt. Art. It can be worn by all people, some want to prevent the development of varicose veins.
  • 2nd class.The pressure is greater here and is 33 mm. rt. Art. You can buy tights and other underwear with this degree of compression as prescribed by your doctor.
  • 3rd class.Products press on the venous walls with a force of 45 mm. rt. Art. They are prescribed for the treatment of severe venous insufficiency.
  • 4th class.The compression level of such linen is more than 55 mm. rt. Art. It is prescribed for severe edema to normalize lymph outflow.
types of compression hosiery for the treatment of varicose veins

How to properly wear compression hosiery to make it work?

Clothes with a certain degree of compression are worn right in bed. This is due to the fact that in the morning the veins are not swollen and not filled with blood, so the patient will not feel discomfort while pulling on knee-highs or a special belt. It is recommended to follow this instruction:

  1. Carefully turn the garment inside out.
  2. Lock it onto your foot so that the heel and toe line up with yours.
  3. Spread the item evenly as you put it on.
  4. When pulling on the product, make sure that it does not twist.
  5. After putting on the item, smooth out any small irregularities.

Operations and Procedures

Medication is not always effective for varicose veins. In some people, the body simply absorbs or excretes incoming substances very quickly, so they do not have any effect on cells and tissues. In such situations, doctors refer the patient to a specialized wellness procedure or surgery. It should be noted that only surgical intervention is able to relieve the patient of damaged veins. Other methods of treatment can only suspend the development of the disease for a short time.

Laser coagulation

This method of treating varicose veins is a minimally invasive one. It can remove veins close to the skin surface. Deep veins cannot be eliminated using this method. The patient is made a small size, and then a laser LED is slowly introduced through the catheter. As soon as the beginning of the vessel is reached, the doctor will activate the laser. It "seals" the damaged vein from the inside. It takes 20-35 minutes to process one vessel, depending on the length. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Patients can go home the next day after the operation.

conducting laser coagulation for the treatment of varicose veins

Radiofrequency ablation

This technique is similar to coagulation, but instead of a laser, a device that generates high-frequency radio waves is used. A special guidewire is also passed through the vein through the catheter, but instead of a laser, the destruction of the vein occurs using the force of sound waves. Patients are also given local anesthesia. After the procedure, the patients are released home the same day. After the ablation, you cannot engage in heavy physical labor for two days.

the essence of radiofrequency ablation of veins with varicose veins

Ozone therapy

Intravenous ozone has proven itself as a remedy for varicose veins. But this procedure has a lot of contraindications. Firstly, people with hypoglycemia and diabetes cannot expose themselves to ozone therapy, it greatly lowers blood sugar levels. Secondly, the event is contraindicated for people suffering from convulsive syndrome and local circulatory disorders. The main feature of the procedure is that drugs with a certain dose of ozone are injected into the patient's veins. The type of drug and the amount of active substance are calculated based on the patient's blood tests and the expected effect.

treatment of varicose veins using ozone therapy

Compression therapy

Some patients mistakenly think that compression hosiery and compression therapy are the same thing. In fact, this is not the case. In compression therapy, local barocompression is used using a specialized apparatus. Excessive air pressure is created in a limited area of the body.

The main purpose of the procedure is to enhance the lymphatic drainage of the lower extremities and stimulate the elimination of decay products from the body. A special rubber suit is put on the patient. It is divided into several segments, where air will be supplied, creating an excess wave. Indications for the use of this therapy are limited not only to varicose veins:

  • restless legs syndrome;
  • prevention of congestion in the extremities;
  • arthritis with gout;
  • recovery after surgery on veins, arteries and other vessels;
  • treatment and prevention of trophic disorders of the lower extremities in diabetes.


This term refers to a full-fledged vein removal operation. It is carried out in two ways: using standard medical instruments and a laser. The second method is considered minimally invasive, but it is rarely used in clinics due to the lack of proper experience in handling equipment. The standard procedure includes 3 stages: crossectomy, stripping, miniflebectomy.


Not many people know that frostbite can be put to good use. In European clinics, it is used in the treatment of varicose veins. This technique is called cryosurgery. The advantage of the operation is that the vessel is destroyed instantly under the influence of cold, but there are too many risks. An inexperienced doctor, in addition to the vein that needs to be eliminated, can harm the surrounding tissues. In addition, not all patients' body normally reacts to the metal of negative temperatures.

cryosurgery as a way to treat varicose veins


This method of treating varicose veins is considered the most conservative of all. Special substances, sclerosants, are injected into the veins, provoking them into cords. The composition of the preparations is selected individually for each patient. The undoubted advantage of the procedure is that after the operation the patient can go home. But sclerotherapy does not always help to get rid of the disease. In some patients, the body simply breaks down the sclerosant, and the diseased vein re-enters the bloodstream.

Healing Exercises

Moderate physical activity is the best way to prevent further spread of varicose veins. You can start performing therapeutic exercises after determining the stage of varicose veins. To normalize blood flow, it is enough to raise your legs to the top. If this option seems too boring to you, then do the scissors or birch exercise. Don't forget about stretching. It helps to enhance tissue nutrition. The specific set of therapeutic exercises should be selected by the doctor.

Folk remedies

Instead of medicines to eliminate varicose veins, you can use a mixture of different medicinal herbs and vegetables. This treatment will help well in the initial stages of varicose veins, but some remedies are also effective in the third degree of the disease. Below are the most effective folk remedies that patients can use regardless of the type of disease.

Horse Chestnut

The most effective remedies for varicose veins are those with horse chestnut. This substance is a natural antioxidant that helps to normalize blood supply. As with other drugs, it has its own contraindications. You should not take decoctions and tablets with this plant if you have a congenital intolerance to it. Also, you can not use any folk remedies without consulting a doctor. For varicose veins, you can use the following recipe:

  • 50 grams of esculus flowers pour 500 ml of 70% alcohol.
  • Infuse liquid for 14 days.
  • After 2 weeks, strain the resulting tincture, and then consume it 1 tablespoon 3 times / day.
the use of horse chestnut for the treatment of varicose veins

Garlic with oil

This mixture has a striking effect on the condition of damaged varicose veins. Garlic together with the husk are crushed into powder, and then mixed with butter in a ratio of 1 to 2. The resulting gruel is used for compresses overnight. Another helper for varicose veins is Kalanchoe. 200 grams of the plant is soaked with 500 ml of 70% alcohol, infused for 14 days, and then smeared with the resulting solution of the leg.


The root vegetable has not only a whitening effect on the skin. Potatoes can also be used to treat varicose veins. 5 potatoes must be peeled and grated. The resulting gruel should be applied to the area affected by varicose veins. The mixture should be on your feet for 4-5 hours.

Apple Cider Vinegar

This substance is a natural irritant. Apple cider vinegar can be applied to the skin neat or diluted 1 to 1 with water. Also, this substance is often used for medicinal lotions. In the latter case, you can add a couple of drops of orange essential oil to the vinegar. But there is a strict contraindication to the use of this folk remedy. It should not be used if there are wounds or sores on the skin.

Complications of varicose veins

Without treatment, the disease begins to pose a serious threat to the patient's life. With severe disturbances in blood flow, the patient develops trophic ulcers. You can get rid of them in the initial stages with the help of medicines, but then the drugs will cease to work. Often bleeding appears against the background of ulcers. The most dangerous complications of varicose veins are thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis. In the first case, blood clots form in the vein, and in the second, it is completely or partially blocked due to blood clots.

Trophic ulcers

Ulcer formation begins with a simple bite or scratch. It should not be ruled out that the area with the worst blood supply becomes a “venous swamp”. The wound cannot heal for a long time, it begins to become inflamed and increase in size. As soon as the ulcer reaches the area of the subcutaneous fascia, the patient realizes that this is not an ordinary skin injury, unbearable pain appears. Ulcers can heal on their own if the patient adheres to bed rest and wear compression hosiery, but the administration of medications is often required to stabilize the patient's condition.

trophic ulcer as a complication of advanced varicose veins


This complication is considered dangerous for varicose veins. The patient often does not feel that he is bleeding, which can lead to profuse bleeding, infection, or fainting. There are several types of bleeding:

  1. Superficial. It is provoked by a cut or scratch. An urgent need to cauterize the wound to prevent infection.
  2. Subcutaneous. May occur due to injury or on its own. In its place, a hematoma appears.
  3. Outside. Due to superficial trauma, the walls of the vein are severely damaged. An urgent stop is required.


The disease is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the veins against a background of prolonged inflammation. The affected vessel can be either one or several. A distinctive feature of this disease is that it affects only the external veins. Thrombophlebitis can be chronic or acute. Both forms of the disease are very dangerous for the patient. The disease is accompanied by a pronounced pain symptom. They treat her in a hospital.


This ailment is diagnosed if the deep veins of the body are affected. Phlebothrombosis belongs to the class of very life-threatening diseases, it can cause instant death of a person. The disease is almost always accompanied by varicose veins and increased blood viscosity. In the initial stages, treatment can be conservative, but with severe blockage, the patient is directed to excision of a vein or the introduction of special spirals into the vessel that prevent the movement of clots.

Prevention of varicose veins

Problems with veins in the legs can occur even in ordinary people without any predisposition, so it is important to pay attention to measures to prevent the development of varicose veins of the lower extremities. Doctors put nutrition first. The patient should monitor who he eats so much and what he uses. Also, the patient needs to change his lifestyle, giving up bad habits.


Food is a determining factor for the human body. It's not just the number of calories that affect a person's weight, but also the food itself. Abuse of fatty foods containing a lot of bad cholesterol will lead to the fact that the density of the veins decreases, and blood clots begin to form on their walls. Therefore, doctors recommend that people with a predisposition to varicose veins (varicose veins) adhere to the following dietary recommendations:

  1. There are many plant foods and fruits. They contain a large amount of vitamins.
  2. Try to eat light protein foods.
  3. Drink more natural fruit and vegetable juices.

The symptoms of varicose veins are also manifested in people who do not abuse bad and unbalanced food, but such a minority. Most often, patients are diagnosed with chronic vitamin deficiency and a serious excess of cholesterol levels. In only 3% of patients, exceeded cholesterol levels indicate poor liver function. The rest of the patients themselves provoke the deterioration of their condition.


If you are already faced with the onset of a local venous lesion, then you need to reconsider your daily routine, and especially your eating habits. For problems with veins in the legs and other parts of the body, it is important to provide the body with adequate rest. To do this, you need to sleep at least 7 hours a day. You should pay close attention to your leisure supplies. It is better to have an orthopedic mattress on the bed, it provides complete relaxation of the body. Also, doctors give the following recommendations to people suffering from varicose veins:

  1. Wear comfortable clothes and shoes. If you cannot refuse high-heeled shoes, then choose models with a comfortable, anatomically correct last. It is also advisable that you wear an orthopedic insole with your shoes.
  2. Go swimming. Even short swims in the pool help to strengthen the vascular wall.
  3. Avoid stress. According to statistics, 30% of people develop the disease due to the fact that they are exposed to constant emotional changes.
  4. Give up bad habits. Smoking and alcohol are enemies of a healthy cardiovascular system.

The most important thing at any stage of varicose veins is to follow the recommendations of the phlebologist. If the doctor strongly recommends that you give up any bad habit or sign up for the pool, then you should do so.