Patients diagnosed with varicose veins need surgery, any phlebologist will confirm this. With severe vein dysfunction, conservative therapy will not help, ointments and pills will relieve symptoms, but will not cope with the cause of the disease. Modern phlebology offers several options for solving the problem - from the classic excision of the affected areas of the veins to minimally invasive techniques.
Varicose veins of the extremities is a common ailment that women are more likely to suffer. People who are forced to spend most of the day on their feet, patients with excess weight, hereditary predisposition also fall into the risk zone. Initially, the problem may be subtle. For a number of reasons, blood flow deteriorates, and the movement of blood from the lower extremities to the heart slows down. At the same time, lymph retention occurs, causing swelling and heaviness in the legs. Gradually, the affected vessels are deformed, which further impairs blood flow, provokes the formation of adhesions and blood clots, and pathologies of the deep veins of the lower extremities arise.
The first stage of the disease can be almost asymptomatic. At the end of the day, swelling of the ankles and feet is observed, the patient feels a pulling pain that disappears at rest. When contacting a doctor, the patient is prescribed a course of blood-thinning drugs and venotonics. The second phase is characterized by an increase in blood vessels on the legs, they form a convex painful mesh. Bluish veins protrude above the skin surface, micro-ruptures with small hematomas are possible.
Stage 2 varicose veins require immediate treatment under the supervision of a vascular surgeon or phlebologist. At this time, patients may be recommended sclerotherapy, gluing the affected vessels. In phase 3, noticeable convex nodes form, legs hurt even at rest, patients suffer from convulsions. Patients are advised to have surgery to remove the veins in the legs using a scalpel or laser. At this stage, conservative therapy is powerless.
Severe pathology - deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. Its causes are stagnation of blood, leg injuries, tumors, long-term recovery after difficult operations. The pathology of the deep veins of the lower extremities is difficult to treat conservatively. To eliminate the threat, it is necessary to remove the blood clot as soon as possible, and then conduct a course of treatment with drugs that improve blood flow. The operation to cleanse the deep veins of the lower extremities is not performed in every clinic; the procedure requires great skill from the surgeon.
An experienced phlebologist will help to understand whether an operation is needed for varicose veins. At the first alarming symptoms and noticeable lesions of at least one vein in the legs, it is necessary to consult a therapist who will give a referral to a narrow specialist. The patient undergoes tests, the state of the vessels is studied using ultrasound. Surgical treatment of varicose veins is the only option to completely get rid of the problem. The specialist must determine the time when it is necessary to perform the operation, as well as choose the right technique. Before deciding on an intervention, it is worth looking at the reviews of previous visitors to the clinic. Advice from a third-party specialist will not hurt either. Surgery to remove varicose veins on the legs is a serious procedure. The more advanced the disease, the harder any radical intervention for the patient.
Modern surgery offers several ways to solve the problem. An experienced surgeon should decide how to remove varicose veins in the legs. With an average degree of varicose veins, minimally invasive techniques are recommended. Their advantages are a short recovery period, a lower risk of complications, and the absence of general anesthesia. Short-term leg vessel surgery is usually performed under local anesthesia without hospital admission.
One of the popular options is sclerotherapy. During the procedure, an adhesive is injected into the affected veins, which stimulates the proliferation of connective tissue. The vascular cavities are filled, the blood flow switches to deep veins. The procedure is contraindicated in the presence of blood clots. The disadvantages of this type of surgery for varicose veins include a high risk of recurrence. If the patient does not make lifestyle changes and lose weight, the problem will return.
Surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities can be performed using a laser. This technique is indicated for extensive vascular lesions located deep under the skin. Removing varicose veins in the legs requires great skill from the surgeon. The laser does not leave deep wounds, the postoperative period is easier. Removal of leg veins is performed under general or local anesthesia, the choice of anesthesia method depends on the patient's condition.
Another modern option is radiofrequency surgery for varicose veins of the lower extremities. It is recommended for vessels that lie directly under the skin. In this case, the laser cannot be used to avoid burns. During the operation for varicose veins, a catheter is inserted into the affected vein and radio waves are directly transmitted to the damaged tissues. They become denser, the vessel is absorbed. After the procedure, there are practically no scars and scars on the skin. The disadvantage of this technique is the high price.
For severely convoluted vessels, a minimally invasive vapor method can be offered. In this case, the treatment of varicose veins is carried out using a thin catheter inserted directly into the vessel. Steam enters through the micro-holes, the affected vein sticks together and disappears. Microparticles of hot distilled water get into the most complex plexuses and completely eliminate the ugly convex mesh. This procedure can be performed by a highly experienced vascular surgeon with the necessary equipment. The technique is one of the most expensive, but the most effective.
In some cases, the doctor will recommend a classic resection using a scalpel. It is indicated for varicose veins complicated by thrombophlebitis, persistent impairment of blood outflow, severe swelling of the legs and the risk of trophic ulcers. Surgical treatment of varicose veins takes place in a hospital, using general or local anesthesia.
The simplest option is the classic phlebectomy. The indication for it is the initial stage of the disease, impaired venous blood flow. The procedure lasts no more than 2 hours. The skin is incised with a scalpel in the groin and at the level of the ankles, and incisions are made over the large nodes. A venous extractor is inserted into the incision, with the help of which the damaged vessel is removed. Then a suture is applied to the skin, the leg is closed with a sterile bandage, which is fixed with an elastic bandage.
It is possible to operate on the affected veins in a less traumatic way. Mini-phlebectomy is performed on an outpatient basis, each action of the surgeon is monitored by an ultrasound machine. With the help of special microinstruments, punctures are made in the skin, through which the affected veins are removed. Sutures are not applied, puncture sites are treated with antiseptics and covered with a sterile bandage. Already 10 hours after the operation, the patient can walk.
A very important point is recovery after surgery. When using minimally invasive techniques, the patient is discharged immediately after the procedure. It is advisable not to travel home by public transport to avoid accidental injury. After removing veins with varicose veins, the patient puts on compression stockings or knee-highs, in extreme cases, you can use an elastic bandage. The rehabilitation period after minimally invasive techniques is short, it takes no more than 2 weeks. Bed rest is not necessary, walking at a calm pace and therapeutic exercises are recommended.
After leg vein surgery, the patient should follow a gentle diet. In the early days, porridge on the water, steam cutlets, vegetable soups are allowed. All spicy, fatty, fried foods, smoked meats, pickles, sweets are prohibited. The menu must include fresh vegetables and fruits. It's important to avoid foods that can cause constipation or diarrhea. After the operation of varicose veins of the lower extremities, any tension that can provoke the appearance of blood clots is harmful. The diet should be light; excess calories will lead to weight gain. Mandatory recommendations - complete cessation of alcohol and smoking.
The postoperative period after the removal of leg veins is more difficult. If stitches were applied, it must take at least 2 days for the patient to be allowed to get out of bed. You can fully recover in a few months, at which time you must strictly follow all the doctor's recommendations. In the early days, sterile dressings are changed daily, the skin is treated with antiseptics. This will eliminate unpleasant consequences in the form of suppuration, inflammation and edema. In case of painful sensations in the postoperative period, the patient is prescribed analgesics in the form of tablets or injections.
Varicose veins after surgery require special attention. During the rehabilitation period, the patient is prescribed a course of blood thinning drugs. It is necessary to take vitamins, especially ascorbic acid, which prevents thrombosis and improves blood flow. Correct rehabilitation after surgery will help avoid complications and exclude relapses of the disease.