Varicose veins are a pathology of the venous system, in which there is an incompetence of the vessels and valves in the performance of their functions due to their changes.
Vein disease affects both men and women, but women are more prone to varicose veins. There are varicose veins in different parts of the body, but most often it is varicose veins of the lower extremities. The changes are gradual but irreversible. Therefore, the main task of the patient is to identify the problem in time and contact a specialist.
Varicose veins of the lower extremities appears as a result of an improper lifestyle: a sedentary pace or too strong physical activity, improper diet, insufficient intake of pure water.
The most important provoking factor is genetic disorders that are transmitted through the X chromosome. A hereditary predisposition to the weakness of the vascular wall and the failure of the valve apparatus will eventually lead to the appearance of varicose veins on the legs.
During pregnancy, the risk of disease is significantly increased due to the increase in blood volume and compression of the retroperitoneal veins by the uterus. By the same principle, tight clothing (corsets) and uncomfortable shoes disrupt blood circulation.
About 33% of obese people have varicose veins in the legs. Hormonal imbalance that occurs after taking hormonal drugs and contraceptives is also a provoking factor.
Let's consider the normal blood circulation process.
The venous system consists of deep, superficial and communicating veins and valves. Blood from superficial veins flows into deep ones through communicating (perforating) vessels. The valves prevent blood from flowing in the opposite direction. Venous tone ensures normal blood circulation and stable venous pressure.
The mechanism of development of varicose veins on the lower extremities is an increase in blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels, which occurs when the muscle pump is working. As a result, the walls of the veins expand, become thinner even more, nodes are formed, and valvular insufficiency develops. Reflux of venous blood occurs - the reflux of blood from deep veins into superficial ones. There is an increase in hydrostatic pressure, fluid stagnation, edema and trophic disturbances develop.
Varicose veins in the legs are shown in the photo below.
Depending on the stage, patients will present different complaints and notice different symptoms. At the earliest stages, patients note the appearance of heaviness in the legs, slight edema, and increased fatigue.
There may be no symptoms at all during the compensation stage, so people rarely go to the doctor at first. In the future, the described symptoms acquire a more stable form: the pain intensifies, the severity and swelling of the lower extremities increases.
The second and third stages differ in that local signs appear on the legs: venous pattern, asterisks, spiders. There are many names, but the essence is the same - telangiectasias - small varicose veins on the legs, soft to the touch.
The fourth stage is the final one, when the legs are very swollen, acquire a bluish-purple hue, the skin dries and flakes, pigmentation appears. Patients complain of constant pain in the lower extremities. Veins are visible to the naked eye, they are dense, sinuous, bulging in clusters. In case of untimely treatment in the last stages, trophic ulcers are formed.
Vein dilatation can be accompanied by complications:
In case of a complicated course, the patient will have an increased body temperature and general weakness.
Everyone is worried about the question: what to do with varicose veins of the legs? The answer is quite simple - in time to contact a phlebologist who specializes in the treatment of venous diseases. He will prescribe adequate therapy depending on the stage of the disease, the patient's condition and venous insufficiency.
Initially, you need to remove all provoking factors of the disease, normalize nutrition and drinking regime, introduce minor but effective physical exercises, and increase your physical activity.
If your job is to stay in one position for a long time, you need to periodically do gymnastics, walk or change the supporting leg. Your diet should be dominated by fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats and fish. It is imperative to purchase compression underwear or learn tight bandaging. Such methods will prevent further changes in blood vessels, increase tone and reduce the manifestations of vein disease in the legs (see photo).
Drug therapy includes the prescription of topical drugs that reduce swelling, improve tissue nutrition, reduce pain, and prevent complications.
Tablets are used at stages when the local ones can no longer cope or are contraindicated. For the treatment of diseases of the veins of the lower extremities, procedures of endovasal laser coagulation, sclero- and ozone therapy are prescribed.
Laser coagulation - the effect of a laser on the affected vessel. After a few weeks, the venous pattern disappears.
Sclerotherapy - filling a vein with a substance that "glues" its walls, blood begins to flow through healthy veins.
Ozone therapy is similar to the previous method, but ozone is introduced here. For the complete disappearance of manifestations on the skin, it is necessary to carry out several procedures.
From surgical interventions, various miniflebectomies and stripping are actively used. Crossectomy is very traumatic and is rarely used today. Phlebectomies are performed with minimal puncture incisions through which veins are removed using instruments or a special thin probe. Patients recover quickly, practically do not feel pain after surgery, and after a couple of days they return to their usual routine.
Some people prefer to use unconventional methods of treating varicose veins of the lower extremities. But here you need to be careful, because not all methods are equally good at different stages of the disease.
At the initial stages of the manifestation of varicose veins, you can use a contrast shower, herbal baths. It is strictly forbidden to visit baths, saunas. Chamomile, birch leaves, horse chestnut well relieve fatigue and normalize vascular tone. From Antonovka apples, Kalanchoe, potatoes they make tinctures and process the legs with them. But with such recipes you need to be extremely careful, they are not used for trophic wounds, bleeding from varicose veins of the lower extremities.
As a preventive measure, do leg exercises in the morning and in the evening. Make it a habit. Try not to gain excess weight, monitor your diet.
It is important to timely treat concomitant diseases that can provoke varicose veins, and not only on the legs. A contrast shower is a universal remedy for toning blood vessels of the whole body and hardening. Hydromassage should be carried out along the bloodstream - from the bottom up and alternately changing the water from cold to hot and vice versa.
Simple preventive measures will help to prevent the disease, and the habit of a correct lifestyle and control of your health will help prevent not only varicose veins, but also other possible problems.