Varicose veins in women are diagnosed much more often than in men. This is one of the most common vascular pathologies, which, in the absence of adequate therapy, leads to serious complications, such as: thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, eczema, trophic changes, venous bleeding. The causes of this disease are varied, therefore, before starting therapy, the doctor must find out under the influence of which factors varicose veins began to develop. In women, against the background of varicose veins of the lower extremities, varicose veins of the small pelvis often develop, which, in the absence of therapy, leads to sexual dysfunction, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Therefore, if there are suspicious symptoms indicating problems with blood vessels, it is necessary to sign up for a consultation with a phlebologist, undergo a comprehensive diagnosis and immediately begin treatment.
Where does varicose veins begin?
Varicose veins on the legs in women are characterized by varicose veins, valve failure, and circulatory disorders. The mechanism of development of such a pathology is simple: venous blood from the lower extremities moves towards the heart muscle under the influence of internal pressure. If there are no problems with the cardiovascular system, this mechanism functions smoothly. But in the presence of any deviations, the body is forced to stimulate the blood circulation process, increasing the pressure inside the vessels. Due to this effect, the blood will continue to circulate from the bottom up, but valve insufficiency will gradually begin to develop. Due to chronically high pressure, the vascular walls become thinner, stretched, lose strength and elasticity, which leads to the development of varicose veins.
Common causes of varicose veins are:
- Heredity. Hereditary varicose veins can appear already at a young age. Such people have congenital valve dystrophy, fragile, inelastic vessel walls.
- Hormonal Disorders. Hormonal disruption has a negative effect on the tone of the veins, weakening them, which in turn leads to the development of varicose veins.
- Pregnancy. During pregnancy, the volume of blood in a woman's body increases, so the load on the cardiovascular system increases significantly. In addition, the growing uterus and the fetus squeeze the vessels located in the small pelvis, leading to stagnation and development of varicose veins.
- Diseases of the joints. Pathology often develops against the background of such articular pathologies: rheumatoid arthritis, arthrosis, osteoporosis.
- Improper nutrition. Varicose veins often develop in people who abuse fatty, carbohydrate, high-calorie foods.
- Bad habits. Along with alcohol and tobacco smoke, poisonous substances penetrate into the body, which negatively affect the state of blood vessels, leading to a loss of fragility elasticity.
- Excess weight. With obesity, the load on the lower extremities increases significantly, which sooner or later leads to varicose veins.
- Some diseases. The disease often develops against the background of liver cirrhosis, chronic renal, hepatic, heart failure, a tumor process that squeezes nearby veins.
- Wearing tight clothing and high-heeled shoes. Tight trousers squeeze the legs, contributing to the development of congestion and the formation of varicose veins. And regularly wearing high-heeled shoes, a woman exposes the veins of the lower extremities to a huge load, which sooner or later they will no longer cope with.
How does the disease manifest
In the early stages of varicose veins of the lower extremities in women, it may not make itself felt in any way. However, as it progresses, protruding vascular patterns appear under the skin of the legs, volumetric nodes that sometimes protrude above the skin. Other signs of vascular disease:
- Increased leg fatigue. Habitual stress causes rapid fatigue. Discomfort is especially felt at the end of a working day.
- Pain in the legs. The syndrome can migrate over the entire limb or be localized in certain places. The pain can worsen at night, disrupting sleep and requiring pain relievers.
- Heaviness in the legs. Begins to disturb in the morning. The unpleasant feeling is enhanced by wearing uncomfortable shoes, models with high heels.
As varicose veins progress, the following symptoms are added:
- burning, itching of the skin;
- cramps, muscle spasms;
- pathological changes in the skin: dryness, pigmentation, darkening of localized areas, dermatitis, eczema.
Stages of the disease
- First.It is characterized by the formation of spider veins on the thighs and legs. Symptoms are moderate, there are complaints of a constant feeling of heaviness in the legs, swelling, rapid fatigue.
- Second.Veins in different parts of the legs expand, the pathological process covers not only superficial, but also deep vessels. Concerned about constant swelling, leg pain, cramps. The dilated vessels protrude noticeably above the skin surface.
- Third.The characteristic signs of venous stasis are manifested: pain in the legs, swelling, fatigue, cramps, burning and itching, changes in the skin, such as dryness, dermatitis, eczema.
- Fourth.The nutrition of the tissues adjacent to the affected veins is disrupted, resulting in the formation of trophic ulcers.
- Fifth.The above symptoms are aggravated. Severe venous insufficiency develops, accompanied by a malnutrition of all tissues. The risk of thrombophlebitis and traumatic bleeding increases.
Signs of other types of varicose veins in women
Varicose veins can affect not only the lower extremities. Other parts of the body are sometimes involved in the pathological process:
- Upper limbs.The symptoms of varicose veins of the hands are almost identical to the symptoms of varicose veins of the legs. Signs of varicose veins of the upper extremities: pain, swelling, nocturnal cramps, numbness of the fingers, a bulging venous network that rises above the surface of the skin.
- Small pelvis.Symptoms of varicose veins of the small pelvis are similar to those of common gynecological diseases, so early diagnosis of vascular disorder is difficult. Nonspecific signs of varicose veins of the small pelvis: aching pains in the lower abdomen, radiating to the sacrum and lower back, problems with urination, intestinal dysfunction, menstrual irregularities, infertility.
- External genital organs.With varicose veins affecting the external genital organs, the venous mesh, nodes on the labia minora and majora, groin, and inner thighs are clearly visualized. Disturbed by severe pain syndrome, discomfort during sexual intercourse, burning, itching.
- Hemorrhoidal veins.The expansion of the hemorrhoidal vessels causes hemorrhoids. Typical symptoms of pathology: pain in the anus, bleeding, prolapse of cones from the rectum.
How to treat varicose veins in women
A phlebologist will tell you how to treat varicose veins in women. The treatment regimen is determined taking into account the nature of the course, the degree of neglect, the presence of complications. In the early stages, non-surgical treatment is possible, involving the use of the following groups of medications:
- Venotonic. They fight against the failure of the valve apparatus, contribute to the healing of blood vessels.
- Anticoagulants. Thinning blood, help to normalize blood flow.
- Antiplatelet agents. Restores blood rheological parameters, improves tissue trophism.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. They stop inflammation, relieve puffiness, and eliminate pain.
Surgical treatment of varicose veins involves the use of the following modern techniques:
- laser coagulation;
Surgical treatment of pelvic varicose veins in women involves the use of such techniques:
- ovarian vein embolization.
Basic rules for the prevention of pathology:
- adhere to the rules of a healthy lifestyle;
- if the work is sedentary, connect moderate physical activity;
- wear comfortable shoes and clothing that will not squeeze and deform the lower limbs;
- normalize weight;
- eat right;
- wear compression garments, selected together with the attending physician.