Varicose veins are a commonly diagnosed pathology. The disease, if untreated, significantly worsens a person's quality of life.
What is varicose veins? To answer the question, it is necessary to have an idea of the mechanism of development of pathology.
The veins of the legs are a branched network of saphenous and deep veins connected by communicating veins. Superficial veins are used to drain blood from the subcutaneous tissue and skin, deep veins - from other tissues.
Connecting vessels are required to equalize pressure. The blood flow in them is possible only from the saphenous veins to the deep ones.
The venous walls do not have a muscle layer, therefore, the movement of blood from the periphery to the center is carried out due to the residual arterial pressure. Tendons take part in the process, which also exert a certain pressure.
The main role is given to the muscle pump. During physical activity, the muscle system contracts. As a result, the blood rises through the vessels, since the return flow is impeded by the system of venous valves.
Insufficiency of valves and weakening of the walls of the venous channels leads to the fact that the blood is able to move both up and down. Excessive pressure causes varicose veins, nodules, and venous insufficiency. At this stage, we can talk about the development of varicose veins.
Important! Varicose veins can also affect the veins of the upper digestive tract, in particular the stomach. Treatment is carried out by surgery.
There are a lot of factors that can provoke the development of the disease. There are several main ones:
Doctors distinguish several classifications of the disease. Some doctors use a stepwise classification:
Another classification is international. It is used everywhere.
The saphenous veins are affected first. At the beginning of the formation of varicose veins, spider veins of a characteristic purple hue begin to appear. The place of localization is the ankles and the surface of the legs.
The initial stage is characterized by:
At the first stage, the following develop:
For the second stage, the following symptoms are typical:
The third stage is accompanied by:
Important! The presence of complications is indicated by an increase in body temperature.
With the formation of deep vein varicose veins, the following symptoms occur:
Important! With the development of thrombosis, symptoms develop suddenly.
Diagnosing varicose veins is not difficult. An ultrasound examination, an x-ray of the veins using contrast, and a blood test to determine the rate of coagulation must be prescribed.
Conservative therapy of the disease involves adherence to a diet, wearing compression underwear and taking medications.
Being overweight is one of the provoking factors in the development of varicose veins. You must completely exclude from the menu:
The main part of the diet should be fresh vegetables and fruits, fiber-rich foods (they improve bowel function, preventing the development of constipation), seafood.
Meals should be fractional: at least 4 times a day.
Smoking should be quit completely. This requirement applies to both men and women / girls. Inhaled resins cause clogging of blood vessels, and carbon dioxide causes them to spasm. This increases the risk of blood clots and associated secondary complications.
Wearing compression underwear is recommended as a prophylaxis and treatment for an early stage of pathology. You need to wear it in the morning without getting out of bed.
Important! When buying underwear, it is necessary to take into account the degree of compression, therefore, the attending doctor should select it. Only a specialist can correctly take into account the existing symptoms.
It is impossible to completely get rid of varicose veins by taking medications. But it is quite possible to stop the development of the disease and alleviate severe symptoms.
Venotonics are drugs often used in the treatment of varicose veins. They help protect the venous walls, and also improve blood microcirculation by stimulating venous outflow.
Treatment with venotonic drugs is carried out twice a year. The duration of each is 2 months.
Prescribed drugs in combination with other medicines.
Tableted format of venotonic is recommended for deep vein lesions. They have proven themselves well:
Treatment of varicose veins by means of this group consists in the intravenous administration of phlebosclerosing drugs or the imposition of an elastic bandage. After the introduction of the agent, the vascular lumen is gradually closed with connective tissue and is excluded from the general blood flow.
It is worth remembering that isolated sclerotherapy does not give a stable result and is not able to slow down the development of the disease. Most often, its combined use with surgical treatment is recommended.
Important!At the preparatory stage, an ultrasound examination of the lower extremities is necessarily carried out in order to exclude the presence of varicose lesions of deeply located veins.
The technique has its own contraindications. It:
As an additional drug therapy, the following groups of drugs are prescribed:
Phlebosclerosis therapy - gluing the lumens of blood vessels - can be used in the following cases:
Important!The puncture technique is used at any time, but the catheter technique is used exclusively during surgery.
The puncture method of phlebosclerosis provides for the closure of large veins and only then small ones. Processing is done from top to bottom.
The dotted line is drawn in a vertical position. Then the person is laid down and the medication is started. If it is necessary to treat a large area, the procedure is performed in several sessions. Recovery lasts 2 weeks.
After completing the sclerosing procedure, the following recommendations must be observed:
Treatment of varicose veins with a radiofrequency emitter is a new technique. During the procedure, the risk of damage to the vessel is minimized as much as possible. At the same time, its effectiveness is unusually high: only the inner shell of the vessel is subject to destruction, the surrounding tissues do not suffer.
Treatment is carried out with local anesthesia under the control of duplex angioscanning. The patient does not need hospitalization.
The procedure itself looks like this:
The ability to work is restored after 24 hours.
The decision to carry out surgery is in the competence of the attending physician. Surgery is the only way to completely cure even advanced varicose veins.
The following techniques are practiced:
This is the most common method of surgical treatment of varicose veins. The intervention is performed either under general anesthesia or with the implementation of epidural anesthesia.
The saphenous vein is removed through a 1. 5 cm incision in the genital area (perineal area). It is used to introduce a phlebextractor probe. During its extraction, the inflamed venous area is removed. Small veins are removed through miniature incisions.
After the end of the operation, the patient is put on a compression stocking or elastic bandage is performed.
Removal of venous areas is performed by exposure to an electric current.
Removal of veins is based on the use of low temperatures. The technique is relatively safe, but sometimes calculations based on the freezing depth are erroneous. It is rarely used.
The technique involves the introduction of a sclerosing drug by a catheter route.
After cutting off the saphenous vein, a catheter is inserted into its lumen. Simultaneously with its extraction, the sclerosant is released.
The endoscopic dissection technique allows ligation and subsequent exclusion of the inflamed vein from the general blood flow system. The operation is performed using endoscopic probes.
Important!A variant of the operation is transillumination phlebectomy.
The procedure uses a medical laser. With its help, the damaged veins are sealed, due to which it is excluded from the general blood flow.
Home therapy for varicose veins is not only about taking medications prescribed by a physician. Alternative methods of treating the disease can also be used:
But the practice of alternative treatment should not exclude selected drug therapy.
The main preventive measure for the development of varicose veins is a feasible physical activity. If it becomes necessary to stand or sit for a long time, it is necessary to periodically strain the muscles of the legs. Swimming and cycling will be useful.
What is the danger of varicose veins if it is not treated? In the absence of adequate therapy, the formation of non-healing trophic ulcers is not excluded, which can lead to complete disability. That is why, with the development of characteristic symptoms, it is necessary to contact a phlebologist and start treatment.